Purchase of Animals
(Compiled by the Breed Director of the Simmentaler/Simbra Cattle Breeders’
Society of Southern Africa as a guide for the valued bull buyer)
The bull's contribution to a
beef herd is more than merely the servicing of cows ...
his contribution is 25 to 35
times more than that of any cow;
the effect on the current
herd of the few bulls used in the last three generations is 87%;
the bull can either improve
or cause the calving crop to deteriorate more within one year than what years
of selection of the cow herd can achieve.
From this it is clear that
the purchase of a HERD BULL is of paramount economic importance and should be
carried out with extreme caution. Factors which should be taken into
account in the selection of a bull are described herein. The points are not
listed in order of priority - they are all equally important and essential.
A Simbra bull may be classified in 1 of 3
groups - the choice is left to you, the buyer
Since the inception of the
Simbra all bulls have been subjected to inspection by breed experts prior to
registration on the basis of economically important breed standards. Animals
with defects or which do not conform to the standards are rejected, do not
receive a certificate and their progeny will at no stage qualify for
registration. This inspection system is of great advantage to the bull buyer
since all Simbras can be identified as follow:
Class A bull:
= the bull and
all his ancestors conform to the standards. Only 3 out of every 10
bull calves from stud parents are classified in Class A.
Class B bull:
= proof that ancestors have passed inspection and are registered,
however, the bull itself has not yet been inspected - he could therefore still
Class C bull:
No certificate (no paper)
= the bull does not conform to the standards and has been rejected; one or both
of his parents has/have been rejected; grade parent(s); his Calfbook or
registration status has for some or other reason been cancelled in the Herdbook.
Therefore insist on the
“ID-CARD” or certificate to establish whether the bull classifies under Class A,
B or C. The
number reflected on the certificate is tattooed in the bull’s ear.
Sales talk such as “this is a
pure bred Simbra bull but he does not have a paper” may cost you dearly. All
that is genuine about this bull is that he has been bred from a cow and a bull.
The bull buyer have decided on a Simbra bull with a view to transmitting breed
qualities to his cow herd. Many years of purposeful selection and inspection
for the desired Simbra characteristics ensures that Class A bulls will
transmit these characteristics to a great extent.
determine the value of a Simbra bull
“We must pay much more
attention on how much a bull is worth, rather than how much he will cost.”
Bull buying is the most
important investment that the beef bull buyer will make in his herd. You must
evaluate a bull on the same basis than investing money viz. return on an
The more life calves he will produce the lower
the bull-cost-per-calf. In order to produce many calves we must look at the
fertility of semen quality;
serving ability or libido;
structural correctness (feed, hocks,
sheath, testicle size and shape);
look well after your bull and keep
him in a good working condition.
If the bull is functionally
sound and happy in his environment he will produce many calves and therefore, a
good return on the farmer’s investment.
2. Now that the cows are
pregnant we want a bull that produces life calves. A big, heavy and
coarse bull normally breed big calves the main course of calving
bull’s EBV’s (estimated breeding value)* for calving ease
(must be high) and birth weight (must be low) are the best predictors of
the ease with which his calves are born.
*Published on Simbra
performance certificates and all official sale catalogues.
3. The next
important criteria is to determine how his progeny will perform and not
how much heavier or prettier he is compared to the other bulls on sale. Seeing that he
not bred progeny yet, the only way to do this is to study his 200, 400 and
600 day EBV’s* . EBV’s measures the genetics that is passed on to the progeny
and not how much
food the bull got.
*This valuable figure
appears on the Simbra performance certificates and all official sale catalogues.
4. The last
aspect to consider in determining the real value of a bull, is his long term
value viz. how will his daughters perform as replacement cows in the herd . Not even the
best judge can see how much milk a bull’s daughters will produce, how easy they
will calf or how big they are going to be. That is why clever bull buyers
maternal calving ease, milk and and mature cow weight EBV’s which
is published on the Simbra performance certificates and official sale
Herd improvement takes place as follows
continue genetic improvement in a cow herd, each new sire should be superior to
the last one.”
only way to do this is by looking at the EBV’s on the Simbra performance
pedigrees and catalogues because bulls is by means of this comparable OVER
YEARS, SEASONS AND HERDS.
using BLUP methodology have replaced the outmoded indices many years ago and are
used universally as the foremost selection aid. The weight of an animal is
determined by environment (feed) and genes. Blup separates environment from
genetics and only the genetic transmissible traits are estimated. Relationships
between animals play a key-role in EBV’s and pedigrees are therefore essential
in establishing EBV. The following EBV’s are published on all Simbra
certificates and official
weight (coupled to calving ease ) = the lower or negative (minus) the better.
WW or 200:
200 day weight – important for breeding of heavy weaners.
WW or 400:
or 400 day weight – aim for high.
FW or 600:
600 day weight – beware for too high (too big).
COW or MCW:
weight – aim for average en if middle-of-the-road cows is preferred the MCW should be lower as for 600 day EBV.
Milk of bul’s daughters.
In the evaluation of EBV’s the
accuracy (a % figure) must be taken into account – the higher the accuracy, the
more accurate the EBV of the trait. EBV’s with a low accuracy (below 75%) will
most probably change as soon as new information becomes available.
What should he look like?
Judging of a bull should
always occur from the ground upwards.
Firstly look at the hooves
(large, closed, deep and uniform), pastern (elastic), hocks (broad, dry with
correct angle), bone structure (not coarse) and stride (comfortable). Should a
bull pass this test, look at his tools - is his scrotum large enough and
correctly formed - does he possess a controllable sheath which is not too
large. Finally examine the upper part of the body - clearly definable and well
developed muscles (a well muscled forearm is always an indication of overall
muscularity), well-sprung ribs (capacity), length of body and smooth haircoat.
Avoid bulls with prominent shoulders as well as bulls showing any signs of
coarseness. Lastly, colour has nothing to do with production.
A bull buyer need not be an
expert - merely insist on the bull’s “ID-Card”
(see page 1). Class A
or approved bulls have already been inspected by breed experts and conform to
the standards. Class B bulls have not yet been visually appraised and
could possess defects although their parents may be champions. Class C
bulls do not meet any requirements and must be avoided.
Attendance of a
Simbra course is strongly recommended.
According to outsiders this is one of the best cattle training courses in the
industry. Application of the knowledge gained there could save bull buyers
thousands of Rand.
Elephants belongs in the game park
Nature does not tolerate
Due to the large variation in
environment and management systems, a sound variation in size exists within the
breed. However, it is best to keep to the medium size framework. An average
size Class A bull is ideal for most commercial herds. The chances are
very good that a large and coarse bull will breed heavy calves resulting in
However, in birth weight and
calving ease EBV’s bull buyers have a powerful calving ease predictors. These
EBV’s are published on the
and all official sale catalogues. Select bulls with ....
... a low birth weight
(abbreviated BW) and
... a high calving ease
Don’t always blame the bull
for calving problems. Several cow-related factors play a role as well. Overfed
or thin cows are likely to have more difficult calvings and cows with flat rumps
(no slope from hipbone to pinbone) give rise to increased calving problems.
Everything revolves around fertility
The importance of fertility or
reproduction is 5 times higher than growth rate and 10 times higher than carcass
The main function of the bull
is to serve females. The bull must be in good working condition - fit instead
of fat. He must possess true sex characteristics, with a characteristic head,
in other words, a bull must look like a bull. A fertility certificate is of
help and assures you that there was nothing wrong with the bull at the time of
The bull’s walking ability and
sheath should be above suspicion. Scrotum circumference is for several reasons
important and all approved Class A bulls conform to the minimum
An annual sheath wash
examination is essential in order to detect venereal diseases such as Vibriosis
and Trichomoniasis, which could have an enormous negative effect on calving
percentage. Fertility examinations by a veterinarian
must be carried out on all bulls prior to each breeding season.
Everything related to
fertility is of prime importance. Look at the dam’s calving record and avoid
bulls from dams with irregular calvings, not to mention dams without calving
In order to simplify selection
of all these dam-related qualities for the Simbra bull buyer, a
star-cow or bull mother register has
been instituted. Cows which comply to high reproduction, milk production, and
appearance standards are registered as one star (*), two star (**) or three star
(***) and are identified on the Simbra certificate and official catalogues –
again, insist on the certificate. Fertility and star cow details are also
available on our
Without milk no beef
Between 60-70% of the
variation in the weaning weight of a group of calves can be attributed to the
milk production of their dams. How do you select a bull for milk production?It is easy, his milk EBV on the Simbra certificate or catalogue is a good
prediction of his daughter’s milk production.
When, at what age and in what condition
The effect of adaptation
(essential for sperm production) to a new environment lasts approximately 2
months and bulls should therefore be purchased a few months prior to the start
of the breeding season. Early purchase and good follow-up treatment is
imperative. In the majority of cases this also ensures “an early choice from a
larger group of bulls”.
Depending on weight, a bull
should not be used before the age of two years. Overworking decreases interest
in cows or libido and a low calf harvest. Therefore, don’t make the mistake of
using a bull at a young age simply because he is a few Rands cheaper. You could
loose thousands in cows that are not pregnant.
Over-feeding results in low or
no fertility, difficult adaptation and bulls are not keen to do their job.
A fat bull looks good (fat hides faults), but is not necessarily a good bull.
Over-fat bulls have a deep or full flank (full of fat - no muscular), a
prominent brisket (full of fat) and fat around the tail-end and scrotum.
Unfortunately it frequently
happens that the commercial bull buyer, who regularly criticises the stud
breeder about over-fat bulls, gives preference to over-fat bulls, especially at
Number of bulls required
Too many cows per bull has a
detrimental effect on calving percentage and therefore income. The number of
breeding animals per bull will depend on several factors such as age of bull,
feeding and duration of mating season. A guideline for a three-month breeding
season using 3 year old bulls is 25 cows per bull depending on the size of the
camp. Young two-year old bulls can only be used for ±15 cows.
With a ratio of 1 bull to 25
cows, a herd of 200 breeding animals will require 8 bulls and since the same
bulls should not be kept in a herd for more than 3 to 4 years (inbreeding
sire/daughter), 2 to 3 bulls will have to be replaced annually. While on
inbreeding - closely related animals (more than 6%) should not be mated - it is
normally detrimental to all production traits.
Where to buy
Only breeders with approved or Class A bulls. Give
preference to breeders in the vicinity where the bull must serve. These bulls
are more adaptable to local conditions. Details of these breeders in all
regions of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia are available from our
webpage or the office.
There are annually a number of
sales where bulls are subjected to strict screening by qualified
When purchasing a bull one
should think in terms of his progeny – see “How to determine the value of a
Simbra bull” above. Remember the effect of using a unapproved bull will be
evident for many years in your cow herd. Although the bull only constitutes ±3%
of the cow herd, he is responsible for 50% of the genetic composition of the
calves. The bull that you purchase will remain in your
herd for 3-4 years and his daughters will have an effect on your profit/loss
account for almost a decade.
realistic price guideline which accordingly to experts applies to good and poor
economic conditions, is that the bull’s price should be equivalent to the price
of 4 to 5 fat slaughter cows. The old adage “Penny wise pound foolish” should
be borne in mind at the purchase of a bull. An inferior bull is the most
expensive product that a cattle farmer can buy.
Superior approved Class A
bulls normally breed superior progeny and therefore provide a higher income.
It is very difficult and takes years to get rid of the poor qualities in your
cow herd bred by an in-expensive unapproved bull.
Care of the new bull
Consult the vet regarding the
treatment and testing of your new bull. In view of the fact that adaptation to
a new environment and feeding has a major effect on a bull’s semen production
and libido, this important investment necessitates proper feeding, care and
management. Especially young bulls which are still growing and shedding teeth
should be well-cared for.
To become properly adapted to
an area, bulls should be purchased at least one to two months before
commencement of the breeding season. The change-over from a high concentrate
ration (prior to selling) to a high roughage diet (subsequent to purchase) must
occur gradually. Depending on the grazing conditions, a working bull should be
fed a daily ration of good hay or maize silage and 0,5 kg concentrate per 100 kg
live weight. Also keep an eye on the bull for disease in the first few months.
The feeding and management of
the most important investment of the beef farmer has a direct effect on the
number of cows which will be successfully covered, and therefore, “the harvest”
- look well after him.
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