The Simbra Breed
(From “Polled Simmentals” by ASA, USA)
(Due to the sex influenced African Horn gene, these procedures do not always
apply to animals of Bons Indicus breeding and is therefore not necesarily
applicable to the Simbra's)
The polled gene (P) is
dominant to the horned gene (p). So when an animal inherits the dominant P gene
from one parent and the recessive p gene from the other parent, it is the
dominant P that shows up in the individual’s appearance as the polled trait.
The only time the recessive horn gene (p) can express itself is when the
dominant P gene is not present.
There are three possible gene combinations: They are PP, Pp, pp, and half of
each combination is inherited from each parent.
The PP individual is said to be homozygous polled because it possesses two
identical genes (“homo” means “the same”). It will have all polled offspring
regardless of whether the other parent is horned or polled, because it has only
the dominant P gene to pass on to its progeny. PP bulls are sometimes referred
to as 100% dehorners.
The Pp individual, on the other hand, is heterozygous (“hetero” means “not the
same”). Fifty percent of the time, the Pp individual will pass on the horn
gene, p, to its progeny.
The pp individual is horned, and is also homozygous because it has two identical
genes. The pp individual will always pass on the p gene to its progeny because
that is all it possesses.
PP x PP = All calves PP
PP x Pp = 50% PP and 50% Pp
PP x pp = 100 Pp
Pp x pp = 50% Pp and 50% pp
Pp x Pp = 25% PP, 50% Pp and 25%
criteria for homozygous polled
Individual animals need a
minimum confidence level of 99.9% based on progeny test. If animals produce
horned calves, they cannot qualify as homozygous polled. To reach the minimum
level of confidence (99.9%), one of the following procedures must be used:
A bull with polled parents would need a minimum of:
10 polled calves from horned cows or
25 polled calves from known heterozygous polled cows or
38 polled calves from polled cows of unknown genotype..
female with polled parents would need a minimum of:
10 polled calves from horned bulls or
25 polled calves from known heterozygous polled bulls.
Progeny from parents which both
qualify as homozygous polled.